Malt = One of the four main ingredients in beer. Malt is where most of the flavor and sugars will be derived from. You can get malt in grain form or get malt extracts in dry or liquid form.
Base malts = 2 and 6 row pale malt, Pilsner malt and Wheat
Specialty malts = These malts add color, flavor and body to your brew. The benefits of these malts can be seen in extract brewing, but really shine in all grain brewing. They include:
Carapils - Used for head retention and stability. Does not change the color or flavor.
Honey malt - Adds a sweet, toasted and nutty flavor.
Munich - Increases body, aroma, and malt sweetness. Will not add sugars unless mashed.
Rauch - Smoked malt used in Rauchbiers. Has a peat flavor.
Rye - Must be mashed. Adds a spicy, fruity flavor. Most often used in Roggen style beers.
Special roast - Imparts a toasty or biscuity flavor.
Victory - Adds a warm, toasted, nutty flavor. Excellent in nut brown ales.
Vienna - Similar to Munich, but not as intense.
Crystal malts = They can give a sweet somewhat caramel taste to the brew. They add to the body and head retention of beers. Crystal malts range in color from light tan to almost mahogany. The darker grains have more caramel/toffee taste than the lighter ones. They include:
Caramunich - A darker and more flavorful version of caravienne.
Carastan - A British malt similar to American or Belgian crystal malts.
Caravienne - A crystal malt from Belgium that has a slightly sweet and toasty flavor.
Roasted malts = These are the dark malts usually associated with porters, stouts, and some red beers.
Chocolate malt - Chocolatey brown and has a somewhat bitter chocolate taste. For use in brown ale, porters and stouts. They include:
Black patent malt - Almost burnt in flavor. Very dark. For use in porters and stouts.
Black roasted barley - This is an unmalted grain. It is very dark. This is the main malt for stouts, but can be used in reds in small quantities. Very strong, bitter, burnt flavor. Contributes to production and stability of head.
Malt Extracts = To make brewing easier, quicker, and somewhat less expensive, you can use a malt extract in place of base grains.
Adjuncts = Added to beer to increase alcohol, crispness, cloudiness and so on. These include:
Belgian candi sugar - Doesn't change the beer flavor, but increases the alcohol and adds to the crispness.
Corn - Tends to lighten the body and add a sweet, corn like taste. Adds fermentable sugars.
Flaked Barley - Add to stouts for better head retention and smoothness.
Flaked Maize - Add to lighter American Pilsners for lightening the color and body.
Flaked Wheat - For use in wheat and wit beers. Adds a slight cloudiness. Can be used to replace unmalted wheat. Helps in head retention.
Honey - Adds varying flavors and aromas depending on the type of honey used (orange blossom, clover, etc). Increases the alcohol content by adding fermentable sugars.
Oats - Adds a silky texture. Used in oatmeal stouts. Has a higher fat, oil, and protein content.
Rice - Used in light colored beers, mostly lagers. Very little to no taste contribution. It imparts dry or crisp flavors.